The Republic of Peru is a country located in the west of South America. It is bordered in the north by Ecuador and Columbia, in the east by Brazil, in the southeast by Bolivia, in the south by Chile and the west by the Pacific Ocean.
The Peruvian population, estimated at 31.2 million in 2015, is multiethnic, including Amerindians, Europeans, Africans and Asians. Peru’s official languages are Spanish and Quechua. Its capital is Lima.
Peru is a representative democratic republic divided in 25 regions.
Human’s evidences in Peruvian territory have been dated to approximately 9,000 BC.
Andean societies were based on agriculture using techniques such as irrigation and terracing.
The most ancient culture was the Norte Chico civilization followed by the Incas that emerged in the 15th century and that formed the largest empire in pre-Columbian America with their capital in Cuzco; they were representing the Quechuas ethnic group.
In December 1532, a party of conquistadors led by Francisco Pizarro defeated and captured the Inca Emperor Atahualpa in the Battle of Cajamarca. The Spanish Empire established a Viceroyalty with its capital Lima.
Independence, was proclaimed in 1821 but was really ensured after the battle of Ayacucho three years later.
Three regions are traditionally used to describe the geography of the country: the costa (coast), is a narrow plain to the west; the sierra (highlands) is the region of the Andes (it includes the Altiplano plateau as well as the highest peak of the country, the 6,768 m Huascaran) and the selva (jungle) that is the Peruvian part of Amazon rainforest to the east.
Peru is a developing country with a high Human Development Index score and a poverty level around 25.8%. Its main economic activities include mining, manufacturing, agriculture and fishing.
However, it is one of the world’s fastest-growing economies due to the economic boom experienced during the 2000s with the mass tourism that is concentrated in the most touristic Peruvian site, the Machu Picchu.