Borneo is the third-largest island in the world and the largest island in Asia.
It is situated in the north of Java, west of Sulawesi and east of Sumatra.
Borneo is divided in 3 parts: Indonesia in the south which covers the majority of the territory, about 73%, Malaysia in the north which represents 26% of the territory and Brunei in the north with only 1% of the land area.
Borneo is surrounded by the Celebes Sea and the Makassar Strait to the east, the Java Sea and Karimata Strait to the south, the South China Sea to the north and northwest and the Sulu Sea to the northeast.
The area represents 743,330 square kilometers and the population was estimated 9.8 million inhabitants in 2010. It is composed of different ethnic groups Malay, Banjar, Orang Ulu, Chinese (29% of the population) and Kadasan-Dusun.
By the 14th century, muslims arrived in the island and converted many of indigenous people to Islam.
Borneo was led between the 15th and 17th century by the Sultanate of Brunei. In 1703, the Sultanate of Sulu was in charge of the eastern part of North Borneo.
Later on, the Sultanate of Brunei granted large parts of land in Sarawak to the english James Brooke, who established the Kingdom of Sarawak.
From 1882 to 1941, the British North Borneo Company controlled the North Borneo (Sabah).
During World War II, Borneo was under control of Japanese forces.
Borneo is home of the oldest rainforests in the world. It has a rich biodiversity which comprises 15,000 plant species, 3,000 species of trees, 221 species of terrestrial mammals and 420 species of birds. It is the natural habitat of endangered orangutans and is the regime of many endemic species such as the Borneo elephant, the eastern Sumatran rhinoceros, the Borenean clouded leopard, the Hose’s palm civet and the dayak fruit bat.