Argentina is a federal republic located in southeastern South America. It is bordered by Chile to the west, Bolivia and Paraguay to the north, Brazil to the northeast, Uruguay and the South Atlantic Ocean to the east. The country claims sovereignty over part of Antartica, the Falkland Islands, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands.
The mainland area is of 2,780,400 km2, Argentina is the eighth-largest country in the world and the second-largest in Latin America.
Its population is 43,417,000 and the capital city is Buenos Aires.
The presence of human dates back to the Paleolithic period.
Amerigo Vespucci was the first European to arrive in the region in 1502.
Later on, the Spanish navigators Juan Diaz de Solis and Sebastian Cabot visited the country in 1516 and 1526.
Spain colonized Argentina during the 16th century which became the successor state of the Viceroyalty of the Rio de la Plata founded in 1776.
Argentina began to fight for independence in 1810 until it be declared in 1818 which was followed by a civil war that lasted until 1861.
In the mid-20th century, Argentina experienced an economic decline because of over-expenditure under the presidency of Juan Domingo Perón whose wife, Eva Perón, was an important political figure as she pushed Congress to enact women’s suffrage in 1947 and developed a social assistance to the most vulnerable sectors of society.
During the 18th and 19th centuries, Argentina was the country with the second biggest immigration wave in the world, with 6.6 million immigrants.
Argentina has the second largest economy in South America and is a member of the G-15 and G-20 major economies. Because of its stability, market size and growing high-tech sector, Argentina is classified as a high-income economy.
However, Argentina suffers from inflation for many years which has a catastrophic impact on Argentinian’s purchasing power.
In 2012, the leading sectors by volume were: food processing, beverages and tobacco products; motor vehicles and auto parts; textiles and leather; refinery products and biodiesel; chemicals and pharmaceuticals.
Besides, Argentina has since long been one of the top five wine-producing countries in the world.
Argentina’s highest peak is Aconcagua (6959m) in the Mendoza province.
The country is divided into seven geographical regions: Northwest, Mesopotamia (a subtropical wedge), Gran Chaco, Sierras Pampeanas (a series of medium-height mountain in the center), Cuyo in the west, Pampas (a massive and fertile alluvial plain located in the center east) and Patagonia (a large southern plateau).
Argentina has the greatest ecosystem varieties in the world: 15 continental zones, 3 oceanic zones and the Antarctic region are all represented.